A project is a temporary effort made by an organization to use a predetermined resource to produce a unique and predefinable product, service, or result within a predetermined period of time. "
Project management is the use of management knowledge, tools, and technology in project activities to achieve project problems or project requirements. "The so-called management includes five main tasks: leadership, organization, employment, planning and control.
Prior to the Cold War crisis (the Soviet Union launched the first satellite), project management had not been used as an independent concept. After the crisis, the US Department of Defense needs to accelerate the progress of military projects and invent new tools (models) to accomplish this.
In 1958, the United States invented the Program Evaluation and Review Technology (PERT) as the Polaris missile submarine project. At the same time, DuPont invented a similar model to become the critical path method. PERT was later extended by the work breakdown structure (WBS). This process flow and structure for military missions quickly spread to many private enterprises.
Over time, more mentoring methods have been invented that can be used to formally explain exactly how a project is managed. These methods include the project management knowledge system, the individual software process (PSP), the team software process (TSP), the IBM Global Project Management Approach (WWPMM), and PRINCE2. These technologies attempt to standardize the activities of the development team to make it easier to predict, Management and tracking.
Critical research in project management has found that many PERT-based models are not suitable for today's multi-project corporate environment. Most of these models are suitable for large-scale, one-time, unconventional projects. All activities in contemporary management are used Project term expression. So, using complex models for "projects" (or tasks) that last for several weeks can lead to unnecessary costs and low operability in many cases. Therefore, the project identified different lightweight models, such as Extreme Programming for software development and Scrum technology. The generalization of Extreme Programming methods for other types of projects is called Extreme Project Management